another是什么意思,如何区分another/other/the other/others

 生活杂谈     |      2020-01-17 11:32
She has two sweaters; one is red and ____ is white。 这里应该填another还是the other?
这里涉及到another/the other用法的区别,这也是很容易弄混的一个知识点。在回答问题之前我们可以先回顾一下another/other/the other/others/the others这几个词的用法。
(1) another
another可以作为限定词以及代词使用。当它作为限定词时,后面要接可数名词单数,例如:We can fit another person in my car. 我车里还可以再坐一个人。但如果another后面的复数名词前面有明确的数目,也可以放在another后面,比如:another fifty miles 再有五十英里。
Those cakes are wonderful。 Could I have another one?
I think we should paint it another colour. 
MPs have one free trip to Brussels and another to Strasbourg, headquarters of the EC, each year. 议员每年可免费去布鲁塞尔和欧洲委员会总部斯特拉斯堡旅行一次。
(2) other / others
other同样可以作为限定词以及代词使用。当other作为限定词使用时,单词后面必须接不可数名词或者名词复数。比如:This sweater is too big。 Do you have it in other sizes?
如果other后面要接可数名词单数,那么other前面必须要有其他限定词来修饰(比如the/some/any/my/your)。举个例子:Saudi Arabia produces more oil than any other country。  沙特阿拉伯的石油产量比其他任何国家都要高。这里other前面的any就是一个限定词。
Some writers are greater than others。 一些作家比另一些作家更伟大。
(3) the other
当the other作为限定词与可数名词单数搭配时,它表示两个人或事物中的第二个(the second of two people or things)。比如:
I've found one earring - do you know where the other one is?
我们知道耳环一共有两只,主人公已经找到一只了,剩下的另一只已经是确定了的,所以要用the other来指代。
当the other与名词复数搭配时,它表示群体中其余的人或事物(the remaining people or things in a group),比如:
Joel and Karen are here, but where are the other kids?
在语境中主人公将所有的小孩看成是一个整体,the other kids指的是整体中除Joel和Karen之外的其他小孩。
the other也可以作为代词使用,此时它指的是两个人或事物中的第二个。比如:
He had his hat in one hand and a bunch of flowers in the other.
主人公其中一只手已经拿了帽子,the other即指的是另一只拿花的手。
(4) the others
the others表示“群体中其余的人或事物”(When you are talking about several people or things and have already referred to one or more of them, you usually refer to the remaining ones as the others。)举个例子:
She gave me one book last week and promised to bring the others on Wednesday. 
这里主人公将所有的书看成一个整体,the others指除了第一本书外的其他书籍,句子理解为“上周她给了我一本书,并答应周三把其他的书带来。”
She gave me one book last week and promised to bring the other books on Wednesday.
由上面的分析可知,文章开头的问题:She has two sweaters; one is red and ____ is white. 这里空格处应该填the other,用来特指两件毛衣中白色的那件。
When two objects are rubbed together, electrons are transferred from one object to the other. One object becomes positive and the other negative.
She has two sweaters; one is red and ____ is white. 这里不能填another,因为它是泛指。如果作者没有指明是哪一个对象,就可以用another,比如朗文词典中有这样的例句:
Why does my card work in one cash machine and not in another? 
[3] Collins Cobuild English Usage 
[4] 剑桥词典官网: